Introduction to the Chapter: 

In the first chapter, the Author covers the two previous incarnations of Acharya Madhva – 

Hanuman and Bhimasena and the circumstances under which the the third incarnation was 

necessary and ordained by the Supreme Being. 

 Sri Narayana Pandithacharya, the author of Sumadhvavijaya starts his 

composition on the Avatharaleela [history of the sporting exploits of the incarnation] of Acharya 

Madhva with the traditional obeisance to the Supreme Being and revered teachers, as it is 

mandatory to offer respectful prayers with devotion before commencing his composition. 

1. Mangala-acharanam [Invocation]: 

 Narayana vandana (Salutation to God in the form of Narayana) 

 I offer my obeisance to Lord Narayana, with the most attractive personality, who 

is the unique primal fountain head and embodiment of countless auspicious qualities like Jnana, 

Ananda etc., who is the originator of the world of living souls and inert matter, who has the 

effulgence of the just rising Sun, who is the Lord of Mahalakshmi, Bharathi and Mukhya Prana, 

who controls the life force of all living beings. 

2. Krishna (Vedavyasa) Vandana 

 .My obeisance is also offered to Krishna (Vedavyasa) who has the lustre of dark 

rain-bearing clouds and is very dear to the Pandavas (Bhimasena), the husband/s of Draupadi 

(called Krishnaa). Krishna (Vedavyasa) also protected from danger or destruction, the cow herds 

of Gokula (groups of eternal word/sound arrangements called Vedas) from enemies (distortions 

in their enunciation and interpretation) 

Note: Here, the poet draws analogies between the cows of Gokula and the Vedas. Using the same set of 

words, he offers his obeisance to Vedavyasa, who protected the Vedas from distortion or destruction in

the forthcoming Kali age and Krishna who protected the cows in Gokula. 

3. Madhva keerthi mahima [Exaltation of the repute of Acharya Madhva] 

 Sri Madhvacharya's fame illumines the three lokas (Heavens, Earth and Nether 

worlds) both inside and outside. It dispels even the internal darkness in the minds of the souls. 

Therefore, it is superior to the effulgence of the Sun who provides only (external) illumination 

with in the three lokas. May it give us pure jnAna and insight leading us to Moksha. 

.4. Trivikrama Pandithacharya Vandana 

 I offer my obeisance to the respected Sri Trivikrama Pandithacharya, my father 

and preceptor, whose composition of words of Tatva Pradipa (Commentary on Madhva's 

Brahma Sutra Bhashya) illumine and give pleasure to good souls, just like the soft moonlight 

illumines the world at night dispelling darkness and bringing pleasure to all living beings. 

5. Devotion to Madhva will lead to Devotion to God.

 Devotion to God will arise only with devotion to the preceptor. Hence, for 

securing the eternal welfare of the good people by the grace of God, I will describe (here with)

the great, pure Avatharaleela (history of the sporting exploits of the incarnations) of Sri Vayu, 

who is the preceptor (of holy knowledge) of the entire world. 

Note: As Vayu/Mukhya Prana is Jeevotthama (greatest soul) and is the main preceptor to the rest of the

souls, knowledge of his greatness leads to devotion both in him and in God, thus leading to salvation.

6. Svaahamkara khandana. 

 The greatness and exploits of Vayu are described by great gods such as Sharva 

(Iswara) and Indra by Veda manthras (such as Balittha suktha). I am a human being of limited 

capacity of intellect and words. (Though my effort is likely to fall far short of the requirements), 

May the good people of the world accept it, by taking only the limited good points (ignoring the 


.7. Svaahamkara khandana (continued). 

The great Mukhya Prana is carrying out all big and small actions (being the inner 

controller of all lesser deities and souls) of the cosmos at all times. How can one classify some of 

these as extraordinary? But the narration of the stories of the great purifies the minds. 

Note: Narayana pandithacharya accepts humbly his limitations in composing a text describing correctly 

and in full the greatness of the preceptor of the whole world. He is still attempting the task, giving the 

justification that some of it at least will be acceptable to the good people and even an imperfect effort 

gives the great result of purification of the mind making it suitable to acquire God knowledge. 

.8. Svaahamkara khandana (continued) 

I may not maintain the correct order in my narration as I am overwhelmed by the 

enormity of the task (of the number and greatness of his actions) and my eagerness to compose 

the work. I am like a jeweller with a huge pile of pearls and precious stones who may err in 

assembling them in correct order in making a mala [necklace]. May the good people condone 

this lapse (by taking note of my sincerity). 

9. Hanumad avatara 

 Prana, who is the inner controller of all living beings, preceptor to all the good 

people and lord of Indriya abhimani Devathas [inner controllers of senses) was ordered by the 

Lord of Shree (Narayana) and also requested by other gods to incarnate on the earth. 

Accordingly, PrAna incarnated (as Hanuman) in Anjanadevi, wife of a great monkey called 


.10. Exaltation of Hanuman 

 This effulgent son of Kesari, called Hanumantha is cited as the ultimate illustrious 

example of all virtues well known in the world. His devotion to the Lord is of the highest 

possible order and is direct (as part of his nature) 

First meeting of Rama and Hanuman [11-12] 

.11. Hanuman's achievements from early childhood were extra-ordinary and were 

applauded in Divine assemblies. He became a friend of Sugriva, (brother of Vali, the king of 

monkeys). At Rishya-Muka mountain, he saw Rama, the Consort of Ramaa, renowned as the 

purest person and the incarnation of Narayana..

.12. Overwhelmed by great devotion, Hanuman, the great monkey prostrated at the 

lotus feet of Rama, who is the embodiment of all virtues. Rama lifted him up with his two hands, 

resembling the beautiful central core of the lotus.


.13. Crowning of Sugriva and assigning Hanuman for the task of Sita's search 

 Rama, the unmatched warrior cut down seven (impregnable) Saala trees with one 

arrow and killed Vali, the son of Indra also using only one arrow. He made Sugriva, the son of 

Surya, happy (by getting his wife and kingdom back) and sent Hanumantha, the son of Vayu (to 

the south for searching Seetha). 


.14. Analogy of Hanuman to the arrow 

 Rama, the great warrior who knew the virtues of Hanuman called him and 

instructed him (confidentially) in his ear to give a message (along with an identifying Signet 

ring) for Seetha. Hanuman, who supports the virtuous, went to Lanka and created terror in 

Lanka, the kingdom of his enemy Ravana. This is similar to Rama, the ace archer pulling the 

bow-string up to his ear for imparting maximum speed to the arrow, which then has a fast flight 

due to feathers fitted on it, striking terror in its enemies.. 

.15. Analogy of Hanuman to the water bearing cloud 

 A new water laden cloud rains down its water on trees, pleasing them. It also sets 

forests on fire with thunderbolts and crosses the ocean with the help of the winds to disappear 

into the horizon. Likewise Hanuman pleased Seetaakriti [a duplicate manifestation of Seeta 

(mistakenly believed by Ravana and the demons to be the genuine Seeta) conveying Rama's 

message, set Lanka on fire by his tail (destroying demons), and recrossed the sea to prostrate at 

Rama's feet. This is indeed wonderful. 

.16. Comparison of Hanuman with Garuda 

 Garuda [carrier of Lord Vishnu] is well known for his valour and speed and eats 

serpents for food. Hanuman is Apakshapathi (flying without wings as he is not a bird) and has 

renounced all worldly pleasures with his bachelor's vows. The valour and speed of Hanuman 

while carrying Rama (who supports the entire world) excelled those of Garuda. It is amazing. 

.17. Building a bridge across the sea 

 When Rama looked at the uncooperative sea angrily with knitted eye brow, the 

king of the oceans got scared and prayed to Rama to build a bridge and cross the sea. Hanuman 

(along with his team of monkeys) built the bridge over the violent sea (enabling the army to 

cross the sea). Ravana, who had harassed Seetha to become his consort was well repaid by 

Hanuman with a powerful fist blow on the chest (which caused him to vomit blood from all his 

ten faces). 

.18. Rana-Yajna [War being treated as a sacrifice] analogy to killing of Ravana by Rama 

 The effulgent Rama was like a glowing sacrificial fire in the war – sacrifice. 

Sugriva was the Yajamana (doer), Hanuman was the Adhvaryu (main priest) and Lakshmana 

was the Rithvik, called Prathiprasthahthru (assistant to Adhvaryu). 

Note: This describes the major role assigned to Hanuman by Rama in the war.

.19. Contribution of Hanuman to the war. 

 (For Hanuman) Carrying the great Gandhamadana mountain which had the 

special herbs needed to quickly heal Lakshmana and monkey warriors, who were badly hurt by 

the enemy, across the sea with a single hand, was an easier task than carrying with both hands 

flowers for the worship of Rama. 

Note: This comparison shows that carrying the mountain did not require any special effort, while for his 

beloved Rama, Hanuman carried the flowers for worship with the greatest care and devotion. 

.20. Agni pariksha (Fire test) of Sita 

 After the war, when the Rakshasas had been destroyed, respledent Rama returned 

to Ayodhya with Seetha, who had demonstrated her purity by the Fire ordeal, and shone in the 

company of her consort in the same manner as a Golden necklace (worn by Him) subjected to 

fire to purify it. Hanuman accompanied Rama. 

Events at Ayodhya [21-22] 

21. Rama was dark, had a smiling face, eyes like the lotus, long and sturdy set of 

arms, and the stately gait of Airavatha (Indra's elephant). A vision of His body gave pleasure and 

welfare to the whole world. Hanuman was constantly seeing Him with his eyes, at close quarters 

and performed services for a long time for Him, who ruled as the Lord of Ayodhya. 

.Boons to Hanuman. [23-24] 

.22. After the coronation, Rama gave Seetha a necklace made of precious jewels in her 

hand, to bestow on the one dearest to them. She (the incarnation of Lakshmi, the eternal consort 

of the Lord) selected Hanuman and endowed him with her full and eternal karuna (divine 

blessings) under the guise of giving him the necklace. 

.23. Rama was greatly pleased by the services of Hanuman and his heart was filled 

with love for him. He placed his hands on his head, looking at him with great kindness and 

speaking to him with nectar-like words. He bestowed on him the highest boon – Sahabhoga, after 

his next Brahma position. 

Hanuman's devotion [24-27] 

.24. Hanuman was the devotee dearest to Rama and there was nothing in his kingdom 

(Rama Rajya) which he could not get. Yet, he was always interested in the worship of Rama's 

feet and had renounced all other worldly pleasures. This indeed, is the truest form of Vairagya or 


.25. Hanuman rejoiced in repeatedly chanting the name of Lord Rama as his master 

and prostrating at his lotus feet again and again. 

.26. When Rama concluded his incarnation on earth and returned to his permanent 

abode, He gave Himself (a form of Himself) to his dearest devotee Hanuman for his eternal worship. There can not be a greater boon than this given to any devotee. How can we describe 

His grace and blessings given to Hanuman. 

.27. The story of Rama is like the Nectar which gives eternal bliss (Moksha) to those 

who recite it. Hanuman continues to stay in Kimpurushakhanda constantly worshipping Rama 

and immersed in His story. 

Bhima Avatara – early part [28 -37] 

.28. Learned people cognise the son of Kunti, the wife of king Pandu, named Bhima 

(Bhimasena), who was born instantaneously when she was touched with affection by Vayu, as 

the second incarnation of the same Vayu . 

.29. In the remote past, Indra (at the behest of gods) cut off the wings of the mountains 

using his powerful Vajrayudha by making conscious efforts. But, infant Bhima who slipped out 

of his mother’s hands accidentally (without conscious effort) on to the Shata-shringa mountain 

shattered it. How wonderful? 

.30. At Hastinapuri, when Bhima demonstrating only a smal part of his strength used 

to play together with other princes, they were getting easily tired early in the play. On such 

occasions, he remembered the memories of killing herds of lions in the Shata-shringa mountains. 

.31. Bhima easily digested the poison fed to him by his enemies (like Duryodhana). 

He scattered the groups of poisonous snakes which were to bite him (as planned by 

Duryodhana). He came out of the very deep whirl pool of Pramanakoti very easily. All these 

actions are not surprising in Bhima, who is after all the giver of life to all creatures. 

.32. Bhima destroyed with craft, the house made of Lacquer and other combustibles 

by burning it and carried his brothers like Dharamaraja to the forest (where Hidimba dwelt). He 

destroyed his enemies like Hidimba without suffering any pain himself. Then he met the 

Supreme Being in the form of Veda Vyasa. 

This was similar to a Yogi (accomplished in the science of Yoga) destroying his own body by 

the use of Yoga, coming out wearing the attributes of Dharma etc, which he has earned, and 

reaching the Supreme Being of the form of his own Bimba, without being affected by his 

enemies such as Kama (desire) etc. 

.33. Bhima with great intelligence and pure mind offered to Vedavyasa all the great 

deeds done by him (in samarpana bhava) and took the vow that further good deeds, 

such as destruction of the wicked persons, will be carried out by him in future also as an act of 

worship of the Supreme being. 

.34. The King swan with great wings flies in the sky, kills cranes and wins over the 

flocks of other birds. Such a swan will have a mate similar to itself. Bhima, who always shelters 

in the lotus feet of Vishnu, killed Bakasura, opposed contrary doctrines, and destroyed enemies. 

He married Draupadi.

.35. Bhima rejoiced looking at Krishna, the son of Vasudeva (Bhima's maternal uncle) 

most dear to him, after a long time (on the occasion of Draupadi Svayamvara). Krishna had the 

bluish effulgent complexion excelling that of Kannaidile / Indivara flower, with wide lotus 

shaped eyes and a smiling face like the full moon. 

.36. The valorous Bhima went with Krishna and Arjuna and quickly killed Jarasandha 

(son of Brihadratha), who was capable of great battles with the big mace. On the occasion of 

Rajasuya sacrifice, he defeated powerful Daithyas like Kichaka enabling his eldest brother 

Dharmaraja to perform the yaga in a grand manner. 

.37. The angry Bhima tied up the untied hair of his wife, Draupadi which was soft, 

black and tousled (which was done by Dusshasana, younger brother of Duryodhana) like a set of 

black snakes (leading to the eventual destruction of his enemies). 


Analogies between Bhima and forest fire [38 -42] 

.38. The fierce forest fire which burns trees and vegetation will also kill lions and 

other wild animals. Staying in forests (like Dvaitha vana, Kamyaka vana etc) to destroy his 

enemies, Bhima with his superior prowess killed demons like Kirmeera (during vanavasa). 

.39. Bhima destroyed a large group of demons called Krodhavashas, headed by 

Manimantha (during the occasion of bringing Saugandhika flowers) like a forest fire destroying 

snakes. The demons were two tongued like snakes, saying the opposite of what they meant. They 

(Demons and snakes) were obsessed with excessive desire for enjoyment, had tremendous 

strength and with red eyes.. They were moving here and there in the mountains and were headed 

by Maniman (had Manis or jewels on their heads). 

.40. Then, Bhima, the son of Vayu concealed his identity (in Ajnatha vasa), and 

showed his form gradually when he destroyed the cruel Keechakas, who were invincible to 

others, and were talking without sense. This is similar to the forest fire covered by ashes, which 

is rekindled when the wind blows over it and rages and spreads in all directions consuming 

Bamboo clusters which whistle in the wind. 

.41. The unbeatable Bhima, who took always the way dear to Krishna, accompanied 

by Arjuna, wearing his great weapons, shone in his valour when he destroyed the enemy army of 

Duryodhana inspite of the support they had from Bhishma, Dronacharya etc. The raging forest 

fire consumes with it's leaping flames, the huge and dangerous forest harbouring great birds 

.42. Bhima wearing numerous great weapons killed all the sons of Dhritharashtra, who 

had lost courage, though they were still powerful and very angry, having lost their great warrior 

relatives like Bhishma etc. He obtained the kingdom for the Pandavas. In the forest fire, 

Dhartarashtras (wild swans with red beaks and legs flying at great speed) desert their nests, 

hesitate to cross the fire out of fear, get their wings burnt and get killed in the fire.

Analogy of Bhima to the Lotus 

.43. The great heroic Bhima worshipped the lotus feet of Krishna like a bee with the 

lotus flower. He was like a great Swan to the Lotus like face of Draupadi. He was like the Sun, 

for the Lotuses of the population of his kingdom (causing them to bloom) and shone along with 

his brothers. 

End of Bhima avatara 

.44. At the end of the incarnation, Bhima left with his brothers for his original abode 

to attain his original form, with the Lord in his heart, after entrusting the kingdom to Parikshit, 

grandson of Arjuna, the Pandava, as well as Subadhra, the sister of Krishna (called Pavithra). 

Bhima also left behind the demons miserable with burning hearts filled with hatred and his glory 

which spread to the three worlds. 

Madhva incarnation in KaliYuga [45-55] 

Background to the incarnation 

.45. Bhima sheltering at all times at the feet of the Lord had dealt severe blows to the 

demons (by his valorous deeds destroying them). The badly mauled demons who became 

powerless and lost courage ran away and dispersed. This was like clouds being dispersed by 

strong winds. 

.46. To avenge their being rendered powerless at the hands of the powerful Bhima, 

the demons schemed to take birth again in Kali Yuga. According to their innate nature, they 

composed evil (misleading) works propounding that Vishnu does not possess any attribute 


Origin of Advaita Shastra (47 – 55) 

.47. In Dwapara yuga, Manimantha, a demon who had been killed by Bhima at 

Gandhamadana mountain had developed a great hatred and spirit of competition with Bhima. 

He performed rigorous penance to obtain Maheshwara's boon that he should be endowed with 

great disputational abilities. Manimantha took birth as Sankara in a Brahmin family called 

Kaladi. Many other main demons were also born on this earth at the same time (with the same 


.48. The thieving cat tries to drink the Curds and milk – called Saannaya kept as an 

offering for a sacrifice (Havis). The lowly dog which takes refuse as food tries to steal Purodasha 

(sacred food offering of a sacrifice). An ape without sense tries to steal a necklace of invaluable 

jewels. Similarly, the evil Sankara tried to steal the sacred Vedas and other Shastras. 

Note : Stealing the Vedas and Shastras refers to their misinterpretation knowingly against their purport, 

leading to their effective annihilation as a source of True God knowledge.

.49. Sankara knew that people will not show him respect unless he takes ascetichood. 

In a spirit of deceipt, he took the vows of an ascetic. This was similar to an untamed wild 

elephant stirring up a clear pool of water with lotuses with the objective of stirring up the slush. 

.50. Realising that Buddhism was not accepted by the people, as it did not accept the 

validity of the Vedas, Sankara, who had faith in it, used a suitable subterfuge to propound 


.51. The wicked Sankara called the Asath of the Bauddhas as Sadasadvilakshana, and 

Samvruthi as Maya. To justify Shunya (of the Bauddhas), he called Brahman of Vedanta as 

Nirvishesha or Akhanda. As he propagated the tenets of Buddhism in a different vocabulary 

(claiming to be a Vedanthin), he was called Pracchanna Bauddha (concealed Bauddha). 

Note : The charge that Advaita is Buddhism in another format has been made by many opposing schools 

and not by Madhva only. Madhva has fully justified this conclusion in his compositions Thathvodyotha, 

Vishnu Thathva Nirnaya, and Anuvyakhyana. 

.52. Brahma Suthras composed by Veda Vyasa are like the Sun illuminating the tenets 

of Vedanta, with their aphorisms being the Sun rays. The Vedas (consisting of the Vishaya and 

Pramana texts) are the horses drawing the chariot of this Sun. Sankara stole the Brahma Suthras 

(by his wrong commentaries) and hence is called as a Great thief. (His commentaries obscured 

the Sun itself, preventing the illumination of the Vedic tenets). 

.53. Though Sankara wrote his Bhashyas on Brahmasutras claiming to be their 

commentator, he conveyed the exact opposite of the meanings intended by VedaVyasa. Inspite 

of this gross offence, Vedas Vyasa being an ocean of mercy, did not destroy and incinerate 

Sankara instantly for his crime. 

.54. The inherent effulgence of the Gems of the Vedas (illuminating the truth about 

the Supreme Being) was covered by the thick mud of gross misinterpretation in Sankara's 

commentaries. Sankara became notorious as Sankara (defiler) amongst the good people as he 

propagated the doctrine of Non-difference (Abheda) between all entities in the world, to the 

people ignorant of Vedanta 

.55. Manimantha and other daithyas thus propagated the doctrines of: 

 unreality (Sadasadvilakshana - special state in which it is neither real nor unreal but is 

different from both) of the world. 

The Supreme Being is without any attributes (gunas). 

There is no difference between the Supreme Being and the souls. 

Even the good people of the world were gradually misled and started accepting that Vasudeva 

(Supreme Being) who is the embodiment of infinite auspicious qualities like bliss is without such 


What a shame! 

The first canto of SumadhvaVijaya Mahakavya written by Sri Narayana Pandithacharya, son of Sri Trivikrama Pandithacharya concludes here.